That left just 55 addresses where offenders can legally move within the square-mile city. For example, they 1 isolate offenders, often forcing them to live in rural areas that lack jobs, transportation, housing, and treatment; 2 create homelessness, making it difficult for law enforcement officers to track offenders; 3 cause offenders to go underground and not update registration information; and 4 can prevent offenders from residing with supportive family members who live in the restricted areas. Danbury is the only city in Connecticut with such an ordinance. Since Milwaukee enacted its law, Dereck McClendon, who works with prisoners being released from jail, said he has watched more sex offenders released onto the streets because they have no place to go. If the officer's belief is confirmed, he or she must issue the offender a written warning and require him to leave the area.
Opponents argue that these restrictions have a number of unintended consequences. Ohio ; and People v. City officials there passed the law out of desperation, said Alderman Michael Murphy, who voted against the ordinance. If the officer's belief is confirmed, he or she must issue the offender a written warning and require him to leave the area. For example, they 1 isolate offenders, often forcing them to live in rural areas that lack jobs, transportation, housing, and treatment; 2 create homelessness, making it difficult for law enforcement officers to track offenders; 3 cause offenders to go underground and not update registration information; and 4 can prevent offenders from residing with supportive family members who live in the restricted areas. Like state laws, local ordinances on this issue either preclude offenders from certain areas where children are known to congregate or establish distance markers. Several studies, including one from Florida and another from Minnesota , have shown the laws have no effect. He introduced a bill that would ban local restrictions and create a 1,foot restriction statewide — a smaller restriction than some cities have currently. The prohibition does not apply to any person: Local Ordinances According to the California Research Bureau, over municipalities have enacted restrictive ordinances, primarily within the past two years. But these laws often apply to all registered sex offenders, including anyone convicted of a sex crime, even nonviolent offenses such as indecent exposure and statutory rape. At issue in these cases collectively was whether the restrictions 1 impose criminal sanctions that penalize offenders whose convictions are final in violation of the ex post facto clause of Article I, Section 10, Clause 1, of the U. The sharp increase comes as no surprise to some. Program participants have lower rates of recidivism. And though the laws are meant to protect children from being victimized by repeat offenders, they do not reduce the likelihood that sex offenders will be convicted again for sexual offenses, according to multiple studies , including one from the U. And many laws are becoming more restrictive — along with Wisconsin, they expanded last year in Arkansas, Montana, Oklahoma and Rhode Island. And the board soon will release a study that will show that, once homeless, a sex offender is more likely to reoffend. The number of municipalities with such ordinances varies by state but according to the bureau, at least municipalities in New Jersey and 60 in Florida have them. There are few places for them to live. The restrictions made 97 percent of rental housing there unavailable to offenders. Constitution, 2 violate the constitutionally-protected right to travel, or 3 discriminate against offenders in violation of the 14th Amendment's Equal Protection Clause. They point to Oregon, Vermont and Washington, where there is a more unified effort among state corrections and parole officials and nonprofits to provide a safe, structured re-entry for offenders, using monitoring, stable housing and access to treatment. Following the court decision, the state started to enforce the rules on a case-by-case basis. In all, 27 states have blanket rules restricting how close sex offenders can live to schools and other places where groups of children may gather, according to research by the Council of State Governments. These courts have held that 1 residency restrictions are a form of civil regulation intended to protect children and thus prohibitions on ex post facto laws do not apply; 2 the federal constitution does not include a right to live where one chooses; and 3 residency restrictions are rationally related to states' legitimate interests in protecting children from harm see Doe v. Other states are tightening their laws. Most perpetrators abuse children they know; just one in 10 perpetrators of child sex abuse is a stranger to the victim.
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