Statistics demonstrate that women generally have a better chance of surviving serious infections. Sex hormones and chromosomes In addition to the differences in the human body structure, such as the larger mucosal surface in the genital tract, a series of gender-specific factors are involved in the induction of the immune response. Influenza A strain infections have caused about a million deaths over the last hundred years. In almost all common vaccinations the antibody response in women is significantly higher than in men. This means, in turn, that girls need a lower vaccine dose for the same titre than do boys. About 80 percent of patients with autoimmune disease are female.
About 80 percent of patients with autoimmune disease are female. Moreover the controlling authorities in the USA and Europe are ever more often demanding a balanced gender ratio with respect to the planning and interpretation of studies — even in animal experiments in the preclinical area. In a comparison between the sexes, they found more than 8, diversely expressed genes. Moeser, Michigan State University The exact mechanism behind the gender-specific regulation of immune defence is still not largely understood. Despite this, the risk of an AIDS onset is 1. In contrast, there is hormone-independent regulation of these epigenetic modifications by factors encoded on the sex chromosomes X and Y. In patients with multiple sclerosis for instance, one topical treatment using testosterone slowed down brain atrophy. Depending on the origin of the Y chromosome, the immune responses to influenza differed. Sexual hormones regulate a whole series of metabolic pathways, including the expression of numerous genes in B and T cells, mast cells, dendritic cells, macrophages and NK cells. With regard to autoimmune diseases, however, women are rather more often affected: Different infections With this in mind, Cory Teuscher and her colleagues from the University of Vermont bred mice whose genetic makeup matched for all chromosomes other than the Y chromosome, and exposed the animals to pathogenic influenza A and Coxsackie B3 viruses. The same also applies to systemic anaphylactic reactions. An entire arsenal of genes on the X chromosome has an influence on the defence system. The same is true for infections with the HI virus. Sex hormones and chromosomes In addition to the differences in the human body structure, such as the larger mucosal surface in the genital tract, a series of gender-specific factors are involved in the induction of the immune response. For a long time the controversial immunocompetence-handicap model was held to be true. Unravelling and undertaking separate studies on the influence of hormones, of the genes of the sex chromosomes, and not least those of our environment, is only the first step. May The immune systems of women and men are very different. It appears, however, that the effective immune response protects the woman against serious infections but is conducive to inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Testosterone weakens the activity of NK cells and like other androgens ensures an anti-inflammatory response. Finally, the sexes also differ in their response to protective inoculations. Antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells perform their tasks better in women than in men. Previous studies show that autoimmune processes such as the MS model in the EAE experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mouse are also dependent on genes on the Y chromosome. In the examined mast cells, the female mice stored far more inflammatory mediators and also released these factors. When taking into consideration all types of pathogenic microorganisms, men are more likely to be the target of an infection than are women; in the female the pathogens mostly strike a massive defence system and this therefore leads to higher survival rates. However, the risk of local and systemic reactions is higher. With respect to humans a higher titre of NK cells is present in men; neutrophils and macrophages in contrast are all the more active in women.
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